The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research created this short video:
The most important fact laid out in the video is that aviation technologies are already highly evolved and, as such, there are no great gains to be achieved with further technological improvements. Thus, impacts need to be addressed by reducing number of flights and total distances flown.
To take real actions to correct this situation, we need to tame the marketing that fools people into thinking aviation is cheap and good for the economy, while obscuring the environmental and social impacts. We also need to change tax laws and aviation fees, to remove incentives for excessive flying and hub concentration.
The smartest moves now are actually quite simple: change the fee and tax structure on aviation, so as to disincentivize aviation consumption. We need to impose a steep carbon tax on all aviation fuels; we need to impose passenger fees that are proportional to distance flown; and, most importantly, the fee and tax revenues need to be spent OUTSIDE of aviation, in other economic sectors.