FAA History: 1960

Friday, January 1, 1960:A major realignment of responsibilities for Federal Aviation Agency field operations became effective. Under the new centralized concept of operations, the Washington Bureaus of Air Traffic, Facilities and Materiel, and Flight Standards, as well as the Office of the Civil Air Surgeon, received authority to exercise direct supervision over all program activities in the field except in Alaska, Hawaii, and at the Aeronautical Center and National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center. FAA abolished the position of Regional Administrator and created, in its place, the post of Regional Manager to carry out the administrative and support functions required by the program divisions in the field. In March, FAA prescribed a standard organization for the regional headquarters under the new system. At the same time the agency gave managers in Region 1 through 4 authority to foster coordination and exchange of information among all field divisions.
Wednesday, January 6, 1960:A National Airlines DC-6B crashed near Bolivia, N.C., killing 34 passengers and crew. The Civil Aeronautics Board accident investigation revealed that the plane had disintegrated in flight as a result of a dynamite explosion. Bomb fragments were found imbedded in the body of passenger Julian Frank, who, in the preceding year, had taken out more than a million dollars in life insurance. The indication of sabotage sparked demands for the use of baggage-inspection devices and moved FAA to clamp a ceiling of $165,000 on the amount of airline trip insurance a passenger could purchase at Washington National Airport. (See November 10, 1964.)
Friday, January 8, 1960:The New York Times reported that Pan American World Airways had put into operation near Shannon, Ireland, the first unit in a planned worldwide radio transmission system using the “forward scatter” technique. This was the first such very-high-frequency ground station to be put into operation by an airline.
Saturday, January 9, 1960:FAA announced a rule requiring airborne weather radar on most U.S. airliners in passenger service. Deadlines for installation were: (a) July 1, 1960 for turbojet and turboprop airliners; (b) January 1, 1961, for the Douglas DC-6 and DC-7 series and the Lockheed Constellation 1049 and 1649 series; and (c) January 1, 1962, for all other affected aircraft. The rule exempted the Curtiss C-46, Douglas DC-3, and Lockheed L-18, as well as aircraft operated only within Alaska or Hawaii. An FAA rule issued on April 8, 1966, extended the requirement to large transport aircraft used for cargo only. Turbojets were required to comply by the end of 1966, and all others by the end of 1967. This rule also exempted certain older aircraft as well as operations solely in Alaska or Hawaii.
Tuesday, March 1, 1960:FAA announced that it was giving its Air Traffic Communications Stations (ATCS) and International Air Traffic Communication Stations (IATCS) the new names Flight Service Stations (FSS) and International Flight Service Stations (IFSS) respectively to identify properly the primary functions of those stations. The history of these evolving facilities can be traced to August 20, 1920, when the U.S. Post Office Department issued orders to establish the first Air Mail Radio Stations along the transcontinental air mail route. The first 10 stations were ready by November 1, and all 17 stations were operational by the end of 1921. When the Department of Commerce became responsible for the transcontinental airway (see July 1, 1927), it assumed operation of the stations, which it renamed Airway Radio Stations (see March 20, 1928). With other airway facilities, the stations were transferred to the Civil Aeronautics Authority in 1938 and to the Civil Aeronautics Administration in 1940. They were redesignated as Airway Communication Stations in 1938, and were later known as Interstate Airway Communication Stations (INSACS) and Overseas and Foreign Airway Communication Stations (OFACS). After becoming part of the new FAA in 1958, the facilities initially received the ATCS and IATCS designations until renamed as described above.
March 1-14, 1960:FAA transferred from Washington to Oklahoma City certain organizational elements responsible for: aircraft registration; preparation and administration of knowledge examinations for certification of airmen and ground instructors; and the issuance of airman certificates.
Tuesday, March 15, 1960:FAA’s “age-60 rule” went into effect, barring individuals who reached their 60th birthday from serving as a pilot on aircraft engaged in certificated route air carrier operations or on large aircraft engaged in supplemental air carrier operations. The rule did not apply to commuter or on-demand air taxi operations, which employed smaller aircraft. In adopting the rule, FAA declared that a progressive deterioration of certain physiological functions normally occurs with age and that sudden incapacity due to certain medical defects such as heart attack and strokes becomes significantly more frequent in any group reaching age 60. The agency therefore imposed the age-60 rule until science provided better tests to determine individual pilots’ susceptibility to these problems. The Air Line Pilots Association sought an injunction against the new rule on the grounds that it was arbitrary and discriminatory. The courts found the rule reasonable, however, and this view was upheld by the Supreme Court in June 1961. (See June 21, 1968.)
Wednesday, March 16, 1960:New requirements regarding instrument flying skills became effective. Persons receiving a commercial pilot certificate were required to have a minimum of 10 hours of instrument flight instruction and to demonstrate their ability to control their aircraft manually while relying solely on instrument guidance. Successful applicants for private pilot certificates were required to have dual instruction in the basic control of the aircraft by the use of instruments, and to demonstrate their manual capability in attitude control in simulated emergencies involving the loss of visual reference during flight. The added requirements applied only to new applicants, not holders of existing certificates.
Thursday, March 17, 1960:A Lockheed Electra lost a wing in turbulent air and crashed near the towns of Tell City and Cannelton, IN. All 63 persons aboard the Northwest Airlines flight were killed. On March 20, FAA reduced the top cruising speed of the Electra Model 188 series turboprop airliners from 373 to 316 m.p.h., pending determination of the cause. Additional restrictions effective on March 25 included a further cutback in permissible speed (down to 259 m.p.h., or 225 knots) and a series of rigid tests and inspections. These measures seemed warranted by similarities between the Tell City crash and the crash of another Electra in Texas (see September 29, 1959). On April 12, the Civil Aeronautics Board unanimously recommended grounding all Electras not inspected since the Tell City accident. FAA Administrator Quesada decided, however, that the aircraft could safely continue to operate under the March 25 restrictions. On May 12, Lockheed announced its conclusion that the two aircraft destroyed in the accidents had sustained prior damage. This had permitted their power-package nacelles to wobble, allowing development of a “whirl-mode” phenomenon that overstressed their wings. (See October 4 and December 31, 1960.)
Monday, March 21, 1960:FAA announced the appointment of 21 of the nation’s leading forensic pathologists as consultants to help determine involvement of human factors in aircraft accidents. This nationwide system of consultants supplemented an already-existing program of aeromedical investigation of aircraft accidents by FAA’s Office of the Civil Air Surgeon with the assistance of pathologists from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.
Thursday, March 24, 1960:The Federal Aviation Agency established a new Bureau of Aviation Medicine to replace the former Office of the Civil Air Surgeon. The elevation to bureau status pointed to the growing significance of the role of the medical program in the agency’s primary mission of air safety. During the following three months, work began on a series of new aeromedical research projects concerned with the effects of aging on pilot proficiency, selection criteria for and environmental stress factors experienced by air traffic controllers, and in-flight fatigue affecting flight engineers on jet aircraft.
Friday, March 25, 1960:FAA Administrator Elwood R. Quesada revealed details of a new program under which agency air carrier operations inspectors were being trained as specialists in the operation of specific types of high-performance turbine-powered aircraft. The specialist program called for increased ground and flight training and type rating of selected inspectors in the Convair 880, Fairchild F-27, Vickers Viscount, Douglas DC-8, Lockheed Electra, and the KC-135, the Air Force jet tanker version of the Boeing 707.
Friday, April 1, 1960:The United States launched Tiros I, the first of a successful series of weather satellites. Equipped with long-range television cameras, the satellite transmitted 22,952 cloud-cover photos during the 78 days that its instruments functioned.
Friday, April 1, 1960:In answer to an October 1958 suggestion by the United States, the Soviet Union informed Washington that it was ready to negotiate for regular airline traffic between the two countries. On May l, however, an American U-2 spy plane was shot down inside the Soviet Union. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev used the incident as grounds for pulling out of the Paris summit conference scheduled for later in the month. Khrushchev subsequently made increasing verbal attacks on the United States, and a U.S. RB-47 was shot down over international waters off Soviet territory. Because of this deterioration in relations, the United States on July 14 postponed scheduled talk on a bilateral agreement for the exchange of commercial air rights. On August 2, however, a Soviet delegation arrived in the United States in an exchange program between the two countries in the field of civil air transportation. The visit was part of the cultural and scientific exchange agreement signed in November 1959. In mid-September, a group of U. S. aviation experts headed by the FAA Administrator began a three-week tour of Soviet civil air transport operations and facilities. (See November 4, 1966.)
Monday, April 4, 1960:FAA placed in effect the first of a series of regulations designed to minimize aircraft noise at major airports by procedural methods while retaining safety as the primary objective. This Special Civil Air Regulation No. 438 set up rules for both civil and military aircraft operating at Los Angeles International Airport, including minimum altitudes, preferential runways, and approach and departure routes over the least populated areas. Similar special regulations covering operations at New York International (Idlewild) and at Washington National Airport were issued October 15 and November 29, 1960 respectively. (See July 18, 1960, and December 4, 1967.)
April 6-May 20, 1960:FAA conducted a management experiment called Project Straight-Line in the Cleveland air route traffic control center area. Limited to the Bureau of Air Traffic Management and the Bureau of Facilities and Materiel, the experiment tested the feasibility of transferring operational responsibilities in the field to a new echelon, the area office, below the regional level. (See September 2, 1960.)
Tuesday, April 12, 1960:FAA announced the start of a live test of the SAGE air defense system as a means of improving high-altitude air traffic control services. A part of a joint FAA-USAF project called Trailsmoke, the flight advisory service test (FAST) aimed essentially at evaluating the capability of the SAGE system to provide civil and military radar advisory information on potential air traffic conflicts. Specific operating positions would be occupied by FAA controllers at two SAGE direction centers of an Air Defense Division monitoring air activity in the Midwest section of the nation. (See September 21, 1959, and April 17, 1960.)
Tuesday, April 12, 1960:The Defense Department released a report recommending Air Force contracts with commercial airlines for most passenger and cargo flights being operated by the Military Air Transport Service. The report was prepared by a committee appointed by the Secretary of the Air Force.
Sunday, April 17, 1960:FAA announced a contract award totaling nearly $6 million to the MITRE Corporation, Lexington, MA, for advanced experimentation on automated air traffic control. Work to be performed under the contract included research and experimentation on joint use of military SAGE equipment and facilities for air traffic control, as well as for air defense purposes. FAA and the Air Force would share the cost of the project. (See April 12, 1960, and September 11, 1961.)
Wednesday, April 27, 1960:FAA announced a contract with the General Instrument Corporation for 38 radar bright display systems for Air Route Traffic Control Centers. The equipment used a dual purpose scan converter/storage tube to present a brighter display that would help controllers work more efficiently in lighted rooms. FAA and its predecessors had been involved in developing bright displays as early as August 18, 1952, when CAA’s Technical Development and Evaluation Center reported favorably on using storage tube techniques for the purpose. At the time of the 1960 order, bright display units were already in service at 10 ARTCCs and 4 towers. On July 9, 1961, FAA announced an order for 40 more of the systems. (See September 9-13, 1957, July 15, 1968, and April 5, 1988.)
Tuesday, June 7, 1960:A wildcat strike broke out at Eastern Air Lines when an FAA safety inspector boarded an Eastern DC-8 flight and took the forward observer’s seat from the third pilot. The Air Line Pilots Association had previously protested this practice as a threat to safety. FAA, however, maintained that the Douglas DC-8 and Boeing 707 had been certificated for air carrier operations with a crew of two pilots and a flight engineer and that the third pilot was superfluous. The agency immediately promulgated a regulation requiring the third pilot to give up the forward observer’s seat to an FAA inspector. Meanwhile, the strike spread to Pan American but ended on June 21 following an injunction. (See July 21, 1958 and February 7, 1961.)
Wednesday, June 15, 1960:Regulations became effective that required applicants for a student or private pilot (class 3) medical certificate to take their medical examinations solely from FAA-designated aviation medical examiners. Applicants for airline transport pilot (class l) and commercial pilot (class 2) medical certificates were already required to be examined by designated medical examiners. During the past 15 years, however, student and private pilot applicants had been permitted to receive their physical examinations from any registered physician. (See June 1, 1945).
Thursday, June 30, 1960:The House Committee on Science and Astronautics recommended that Congress support a Federal program for the development of a commercial supersonic transport (SST). The committee report called for completion of the B-70 bomber program, which it considered justified on defense grounds and which was expected to blaze a technological trail for the SST. The report also recommended that NASA assume leadership in devising a program for SST development. (See January 9, 1961.)
Friday, July 1, 1960:Effective this date, 5 additional megacycles of radio frequencies were allocated for FAA air traffic control communications. This was the first increase in the VHF radio spectrum allocated for communications in the common air traffic system since October 1946. The additional 5 megacycles (126.825 to 128.825 and 132.025 to 135.0) added 100 channels to the air traffic control system.
Wednesday, July 6, 1960:FAA certificated the single-turbine Sikorsky S-62, an amphibious helicopter, for commercial operations on passenger and mail routes.
Monday, July 18, 1960:As part of its noise abatement program, FAA issued a new series of detailed takeoff and landing instructions for jet airliners. Applying to individual aircraft by type and intended for inclusion in pilot training programs, the new instructions were designed to become standard methods of operating the Boeing 707, the DC-8, the Convair 880, the Lockheed Electra, the Fairchild F-27, the Viscount, and the Napier Eland Convair. The new procedures were drawn up and voluntarily agreed upon by all elements of the aviation industry during an FAA-sponsored meeting in the spring of 1960. Further such meetings were planned for reviewing and updating the procedures. (See April 4, 1960, and January 25, 1967.)
Monday, August 1, 1960:FAA launched Project Searchlight, an intensive and comprehensive study of its activities involving maintenance of equipment in the Federal Airways System. The agency conducted the study in several phases, completing it in early 1962. The resulting recommendations led to several improvements (see January 1963 and May 1, 1963), including the creation of a separate Systems Maintenance Service (see May 16, 1962).
Thursday, August 11, 1960:Executive Order 10883, signed by President Eisenhower this date, but effective October 10, 1960, abolished the Air Coordinating Committee (see September 19, 1946). In a memorandum accompanying the Executive Order, the President made future coordination of aviation matters in the Federal Government the responsibility of the FAA Administrator. Since the need for such coordination would be greatest in the international area, the President suggested that the Administrator form an interagency group to develop recommendations on international aviation questions for the Secretary of State. The President stated that continuing membership in this group should be small, but ad hoc membership should be open to any other agencies having a substantial interest in matters under consideration by the group. (See December 19, 1960.)
Thursday, August 25, 1960:FAA commissioned the first ASR-4 airport surveillance radar at Newark. Scheduled for installation at 34 of the nation’s airports, the new radar system had a range of 60 miles, the capability of reaching an altitude of 25,000 feet, a 16-inch picture tube, and controller’s-option display of either fixed or moving objects. The Civil Aeronautics Administration, FAA’s predecessor agency, had commissioned the first ASRs during fiscal year 1951. (See June 1975.)
Friday, September 2, 1960:FAA Administrator Quesada approved a field reorganization of the Federal Aviation Agency in accordance with the recommendations of Project Straight-Line (see April 6- May 20, 1960), to be completed in phases by June 30, 1961. Intended to decentralize many regional responsibilities to a new and lower echelon, the area office, the reorganization would establish a “straight line” of command between the bureaus at FAA headquarters in Washington and the field facilities. Involved in the reorganization would be the field of the Bureau of Air Traffic Management, the facility maintenance and field supply functions of the Bureau of Facilities and Materiel, and the flight inspection and procedures activities and services of the Bureau of Flight Standards. The area organization was to be based on the geographic boundaries of air traffic flight advisory areas and located physically near the air route traffic control centers within the then existing 27 flight advisory areas in FAA’s four domestic regions. The functions of 74 airway technical district offices and 27 air traffic supervisory offices were to be merged into the new area offices. FAA issued orders to implement the new area concept of administration on November 11, 1960, and February 6, 1961. (See April 7, 1961.)
Thursday, September 8, 1960:FAA adopted the British RAE visual glide path indicator landing lights as a national standard for use at U.S. airports. Developed by the Royal Aircraft Establishment in England, the RAE system required no equipment of any kind in the aircraft cockpit. Where installed at airports, it promoted air safety by reducing the possibility that aircraft might overshoot or undershoot the runway, and it helped abate noise by keeping aircraft as high during landing approach as safety factors permitted.
Thursday, September 8, 1960:FAA issued a new aircraft noise abatement technical planning guide for use by Federal and local officials. The guide discouraged certain kinds of construction in areas around large airports, such as residential subdivisions, schools, churches, hospitals, and other places of public assembly. Land lying immediately under the takeoff and landing patterns of jet runways, the guide recommended, should be utilized wherever possible for industrial, commercial, agricultural, or recreational purposes.
Friday, September 9, 1960:FAA permitted aviation medical examiners (AMEs) to deny, as well as issue, medical certificates to applicants that they examined. Previously, applicants whose fitness was questioned by the AME were automatically referred to the FAA Civil Air Surgeon in Washington. Under the new procedure, such referral ceased to be automatic, but the AME-denied airman could still appeal to the Civil Air Surgeon. Denial by the Civil Air Surgeon also remained appealable, to the Civil Aeronautics Board, as provided by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. On December 14, FAA named nine members to a Medical Advisory Panel to assist the Administrator with the cases of applicants for airman certification who petitioned for exemption from medical standards. On October 25, meanwhile, FAA had also announced the establishment of a Medical Advisory Council of 11 prominent doctors. The Council was appointed by the Civil Air Surgeon and assisted in developing and coordinating the aviation medicine program.
Saturday, September 10, 1960:The Department of Defense conducted Operation Sky-Shield, a giant air defense drill, which necessitated the grounding of all commercial and general aviation aircraft throughout the North American continent for a six-hour period.
Thursday, September 1, 1960:FAA commissioned its first Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-2) at Newark, NJ. Originally developed for the Air Force, ASDE was a radar system that provided air traffic controllers with information on the position of aircraft and other vehicles on the ground, even during darkness and fog. The ASDE antenna picked up this data for display on a scope in the airport tower. FAA’s specifications for ASDE-2 were based largely upon an improved developmental model that had been operated under the agency’s cognizance at New York International Airport (Idlewild). Besides Newark and Idlewild, eight other major U.S. airports were also scheduled to receive ASDE-2 in this initial installation program: Washington (Washington National and Dulles International), Boston, Seattle, San Francisco, Cleveland, Los Angeles, and Portland. (See July 5, 1977.)
Tuesday, October 4, 1960:An Eastern Air Lines Electra plunged into Boston Harbor shortly after taking off from Logan Airport, killing all but 10 of the 72 persons aboard. The accident marked the fifth Electra crash in two years and touched off renewed demands to ground the aircraft, which was being allowed to operate by FAA under a reduced speed regime (see March 17 and December 31, 1960). The presence of many dead birds on the Logan runway helped to convince FAA Administrator E. R. Quesada that the accident had probably been caused by ingestion of birds into the aircraft’s engines rather than structural failure. Quesada decided not to ground the Electra. This judgment was later supported by laboratory tests that pointed conclusively to bird ingestion. Following the Boston crash, FAA engaged in studies and research on the bird hazard and methods of protecting aircraft from the effects of bird strikes.
Sunday, October 9, 1960:FAA commissioned the Oakland air traffic control center’s new building, followed by the Atlanta center’s new building on October 15.
October 15, 1960-March 1, 1961:FAA successfully tested positive control on an area basis, as distinguished from a route basis (see May 28, 1958 and April 6, 1961), in Operation Pathfinder. As a result, area positive control was continued as a regular service in the location used for the test: airspace between the altitudes of 24,000 and 35,000 feet overlying 120,000 square miles surrounding FAA’s air route traffic control centers at Chicago and Indianapolis. Any aircraft entering this airspace, whether on or off the airways, were required to be equipped with (1) a radio permitting direct communication with controllers at the centers, and (2) a radar beacon transponder for identifying the aircraft, independently of voice communications, on the controllers’ radarscopes. In addition, such aircraft were required to fly on instruments regardless of weather, remaining under control of the centers while in the positive control area. Under these conditions of constant radar surveillance, aircraft required as little as half the standard separation interval. The launching of Operation Pathfinder was preceded by more than a year of special preparations at the Chicago and Indianapolis centers–including intensive controller training, installation of additional radar and communications equipment, development of air traffic control procedures and phraseology, and an exhaustive analysis of the program through simulation studies.
Tuesday, October 18, 1960:FAA announced a comprehensive project to consolidate and simplify aviation safety regulations. The regulations had evolved without a coordinated plan, and interested persons might have to consult as many as 11 different publications to secure the desired information. Redundant and obsolete provisions and unnecessarily complicated or technical language also made it difficult to use the regulations. The purpose of the project was to eliminate these faults without changing the substance of the regulations. (See November 1, 1937, and August 31, 1961.)
Saturday, October 29, 1960:A chartered Curtiss-Wright Super C-46F crashed at Toledo, OH, killing 22 of the 48 persons aboard, including 18 members of the California State Polytechnic College football team. CAB cited the probable cause as loss of control during premature liftoff, with contributary factors that included zero-visibility fog. The pilot’s license had been revoked by FAA for a series of previous violations, but he had continued flying pending an appeal before CAB. The operator, Artic-Pacific, lost its certificate as a result of the crash. After the accident, FAA instructed its tower controllers to withold takeoff clearance from commercial aircraft under specified conditions of low visibility.
Thursday, November 3, 1960:FAA certificated the Beech 95-55 Baron, a four- to five-place aircraft powered by two Continental 260 h.p. fuel-injection engines. The plane had first flown on February 29, 1960.
Thursday, December 15, 1960:FAA began the assimilation of six Military Flight Service Centers manned by approximately 500 men of the USAF Airways and Air Communications Services. Completed the following spring, the transfer was a part of the overall FAA-DOD plan labeled “Project Friendship” (see October 7, 1959, January 1962, and February 17, 1962).
Friday, December 16, 1960:A United DC-8 and a TWA Super Constellation collided in midair over Brooklyn, NY, killing all 128 occupants aboard the planes and eight persons on the ground. CAB determined that the probable cause was that the United flight proceeded beyond its clearance limit and confines of the airspace assigned by Air Traffic Control. The DC-8’s high speed, coupled with a change of clearance which reduced the distance which the aircraft needed to travel by approximately 11 miles, contributed to the crash. The Board concluded that the crew did not take note of the change of time and distance associated with the new clearance. The crew’s workload was increased by the fact that one of their two Very High Frequency radio navigational receivers was inoperative, a fact unknown to Air Traffic Control. FAA actions taken as a result of the accident included: a requirement that pilots operating under instrument flight rules report malfunctions of navigation or communications equipment, effective February 17, 1961; a program to equip all turbine-powered aircraft with distance measuring equipment, or DME (see June 15, 1961); a speed rule, effective December 18, 1961, prohibiting aircraft from exceeding 250 knots when within 30 nautical miles of a destination airport and below 10,000 feet, except for certain military jets requiring a higher minimum speed for safe operation; and other steps to strengthen air traffic control procedures.
Monday, December 19, 1960:The Martin Company delivered its last airplane, a Marlin Patrol Boat, to the Navy. Since the company’s founding by Glenn L. Martin in 1912, it had produced more than 12,000 aircraft. Since 1948, the company had also been active in the missile-space field, and it would continue in that field.
Monday, December 19, 1960:FAA Administrator Quesada announced the establishment of the Interagency Group on International Aviation (IGIA) . With the Administrator as chairman, the group included one representative each from the Civil Aeronautics Board and the Departments of State, Defense, and Commerce, and one ad hoc representative each from any other agencies having a substantial concern in business before the group. The IGIA was to develop recommendations for the Secretary of State on international aviation questions involving the substantial interest of two or more agencies other than the Department of State. The work to be done by IGIA had formerly constituted part of the function of the Air Coordinating Committee. (See August 11, 1960.)
Friday, December 30, 1960:FAA and Air Force jointly announced a U.S. Air Force program to develop a long-range all-cargo aircraft designed to meet civil and military needs. Part of a program to modernize the Military Air Transport Service (MATS) with long-range jet transports, the aircraft was to be developed in such a way as to be qualified, upon completion, for immediate FAA certification as a commercial carrier. On December 17. 1963, the U.S. Air Force’s C-141A first flew, and on April 23, 1965, the Air Force accepted delivery of its first C0141. On January 19, 1965, FAA had type-certificated the civil version, the Lockheed Model 300-50A-Ol (StarLifter).
Saturday, December 31, 1960:FAA lifted the speed restriction on Lockheed Electras when modification to prevent recurrence of the nacelle-wing whirl mode phenomenon had been accomplished (see March 17, 1960). The agency informed all known operators of the Electra by telegram and published the airworthiness directive in the Federal Register on January 17, 1961.
Primary Sources:
Dated items along the left margin of the FAA History Pages were compiled from the series of FAA’s ‘Historical Chronology’ PDF files. For a list and links to uploaded copies of these PDF files, see aiReform’s ‘FAA History’ main page (link above).
Additional content has been compiled from Wikipedia and other sources; these items are presented along the right margin, and include significant accidents, Whistleblower case actions, various news items, ATC technology developments, links to related material, comments, etc. Further content will be added at a later date.