FAA History: 1962

Monday, January 1, 1962: As a step in the Federal Aviation Agency’s decentralization of operational activities to the field (see July 1, 1961), FAA transferred to its seven regions the additional responsibility of processing enforcement actions arising from violations of the Civil Air Regulations by air carriers, air carrier airmen, manufacturers, or military personnel. The regions already had authority to process actions in the general aviation field.
Monday, January 8, 1962:FAA established an Agency Regulatory Council to facilitate rulemaking and to insure the implementation of the Administrator’s rulemaking policies. The agency also established the position of Executive Director to provide full-time management for the Council. Besides the Executive Director, original regular membership consisted of: the Administrator (as chairman); the Deputy Administrator; the Director, Air Traffic Service; the Director, Flight Standards Service; the Civil Air Surgeon; and the General Counsel. Added as regular members later were: the Director, Airports Service; the Director, Systems Research and Development Service; the Associate Administrator for Programs; and the Assistant Administrator, International Aviation Affairs. The other Associate Administrators and other office and service heads participated individually as ad hoc members in matters of substantive concern to them. Establishment of the Regulatory Council implemented one of the principal recommendations of Project Tightrope (see March 29, 1961). The Council’s first meeting took place on January 10, 1962.
Wednesday, January 17, 1962:As recommended by Project Tightrope (see March 29, 1961), FAA established the positions of chief hearing officer and hearing officers to make available to airmen a trial-type proceeding when charged with a violation of the Civil Air Regulations for which their certificate might be suspended or revoked. Appearance before a hearing officer would not prejudice the airman’s statutory right to appeal an FAA decision to the Civil Aeronautics Board. In July 1963, FAA broadened hearing officer duties to include the conduct of such other public and intra-agency hearings as the Administrator might direct. Three hearing officers began their new duties about March 1, 1962. Based one each at Los Angeles, Kansas City, and Atlanta, they held hearings at various locations within their respective jurisdictions, which covered the contiguous 48 states. Pending the appointment of a chief hearing officer, the hearing officers reported to the Administrator through the Executive Director of the Agency’s Regulatory Council (see January 8, 1962).
Wednesday, January 17, 1962:President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 10988, which guaranteed the right of Federal employees to join organizations — i.e., any lawful association, labor union, federation, council, or brotherhood “having as a primary purpose the improvement of working conditions among Federal employees” —
January 1962:FAA began using semiautomatic flight inspection (SAFI) equipment for all-weather flight inspection at high altitudes, initially on a limited basis. By the end of fiscal 1963, SAFI-equipped aircraft performed almost all inspections of those air navigation facilities in the 48 contiguous states used purely for en route navigation. (As the dependability of the en route system became established, the SAFI program was reduced until by 1990 it was conducted by a single aircraft.) Meanwhile, an Executive Order of August 28, 1962, formally authorized the transfer of flight inspection responsibilities from the Defense Department to FAA, as planned under Project Friendship (see October 7, 1959). This process had already begun during the first half of calendar 1961, when FAA had undertaken flight inspection for the Army and Navy, initially on reimbursable basis. During fiscal 1963, the agency also took over routine inspection of air navigation aids for the Air Force, although that service retained some flight inspection aircraft of its own (see October 1, 1991). At the end of fiscal 1963, FAA’s worldwide flight inspection fleet consisted of: 55 Douglas DC-3s; 6 DC-4s (C-54s); 8 Convair 240s (T-29s); 5 Convair 440s (C-131s); 2 Boeing 707s (KC-135s); 4 Lockheed 749 Constellations; and one Fairchild C-123. (See October 6, 1956, and July 8, 1973.)
Saturday, February 17, 1962:The Director of the Bureau of the Budget proposed appointment of a joint Bureau of the Budget/Department of Defense/Federal Aviation Agency Steering Committee to study outstanding problems and recommend further action in the matter of the proposed mass transfer of military air navigation facilities to FAA and consolidation of air traffic management functions in that agency as part of
Wednesday, February 21, 1962:The U.S. Senate confirmed Major General Harold W. Grant, USAF, as FAA’s Deputy Administrator, succeeding James T. Pyle (see December 31, 1958). A specialist in communications, General Grant was Commander of the Air Force Communications Service when the President selected him, on February 1, for the FAA position. Born in Louisville, KY, General Grant received a bachelor of science degree from Northwestern University in 1928, and was commissioned in the Army Air Corps the following year. In World War II, he served as U.S. Air Signal Planner for Combined Operations in the European Theater and as Deputy Signal Officer in Chief of the Southeast Asia Command in India. During the Korean conflict, he was Vice Commander of the Japan Air Defense Force. After other assignments of high responsibility in the Far East and the United States, he became, in mid-1958, director of communications and electronics in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, U.S. Air Force Headquarters. From this position he was assigned in July 1961 to the command from which he came to FAA. His decorations include the Legion of Merit with two clusters and the Order of the British Empire. (See July 1, 1965.) During the two years after his appointment, Grant helped to work out a series of agreements with military commands that provided close integration of communication systems and joint use of facilities, especially radar. Under an agreement with the Continental Air Defense Command, FAA handled the ATC operations of interceptor flights going to and returning from a target. These agreements reduced the chances of civil-military midair collisions and provided better defense readiness. The improved coordination of military and FAA activities helped to ease tensions that had developed over the FAA decision to make only limited use the military’s SAGE system in the national ATC system (see September 11, 1961, and December 1, 1963).
Tuesday, February 27, 1962:FAA announced Project Little Guy, a three-year program aiming at development of a simpler, more efficient cockpit layout for light aircraft. The results of this research and development effort would be available to future aircraft designers.
Wednesday, February 28, 1962:FAA received the Project Pipeline report, a study to improve and modernize FAA’s supply system. The final report, based on an extensive study of the supply systems of private industry and Federal agencies, established guidelines for subsequent improvements in FAA’s supply-materiel. A parallel project, titled the Harbridge House study (for the Boston management firm which produced it), was also undertaken and completed in the spring. The Harbridge study reviewed FAA’s materiel activities with respect to organization for management of the materiel function, training requirements for materiel programs, and problem areas in procurement. During fiscal year 1963, FAA formulated a comprehensive Materiel Systems Improvement Plan. According to the agency’s FY63 annual report, FAA began a two-year implementation process of that plan, streamlining business methods, increasing the use of electronic automatic data-processing equipment, and improving distribution and storage techniques.
Thursday, March 1, 1962:Los Angeles Airways began the world’s first airline service by a multi-engine turbine-powered transport helicopter. The airline used the new Sikorsky S-61L, which had first flown on December 6, 1960, and which became the first twin-turbine helicopter to receive an FAA commercial type certificate on November 2, 1961. An important competitor to the S-61L was the Boeing-Vertol 107-II, which had first flown in prototype on October 25, 1960, and received certification on January 26, 1962. The Vertol 107-II entered scheduled service with New York Airways on July 1, 1962.
Monday, March 5, 1962:In Griggs v. Allegheny County, the U. S. Supreme Court held that noise from low-flying aircraft had interfered with the use and enjoyment of Grigg’s residential property near a runway to such an extent as to constitute a “taking” of an air easement for which compensation must be made. In Causby v. United States (see May 27, 1946), the Court had ruled that such an easement had been taken by the Federal government, which was the owner/operator of the aircraft in that case. In Griggs, however, the Court asserted that Allegheny County, PA, as the “the promoter, owner, and lessor of the airport” took the air easement. The Court absolved the airlines and the Federal government of any taking, stating that it was Allegheny County that decided, subject to Civil Aeronautics Administration approval, “where the airport would be built, what runways it would need, their direction and length, and what land and navigation easements would be needed.” The Court concluded that, in designing the airport, the County had not acquired enough private property to satisfy constitutional standards. (See December 13, 1956, and May 14, 1973.)
Friday, March 16, 1962: Effective this date, FAA abolished the Office of Plans, and transferred its personnel to other FAA components (see January 15, 1959 and August 28, 1967).
Friday, March 23, 1962:FAA type-certificated North American Aviation’s Sabreliner (Model 265), an executive type jet aircraft. It thus became the first executive-type aircraft with twin turbojet engines to be designed, developed, and certificated in the United States.
Late March 1962:FAA Administrator N. E. Halaby added a Special Assistant for General Aviation to his personal staff. A recognition of general aviation’s great growth and continuing expansion, this appointment carried out one of the recommendations of the Project Horizon study (see September 10, 1961).
Sunday, April 1, 1962:FAA commissioned the Fort Worth air traffic control center’s new building. Other new center buildings commissioned during 1962 were: Kansas City, April 30; Denver, May 1; Memphis, May 5; Minneapolis, July 1, Seattle, August 1; Salt Lake City, October 1; Indianapolis, November 1; and Chicago, December 1.
Wednesday, April 11, 1962:Simultaneous code-identification and voice broadcasts from air navigation facilities would soon be standard, FAA announced, as a result of modifications being made to VORs and VORTACs. Simultaneous broadcasts had been recommended for international adoption by the Seventh Session of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Communications Division.
Wednesday, April 11, 1962:Administrator Halaby announced the formation of a Technical Advisory Board to assist FAA in keeping abreast of science and technology in general, and to help in particular with the agency’s planning for modernizing the airspace system on the basis of the Project Beacon recommendations (see September 11, 1961). Richard R. Hough, Vice President for Engineering of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company served as chairman of the committee. Mr. Hough had previously served as chairman of the Project Beacon task force. Joseph D. Blatt, Director of FAA’s Aviation Research and Development Service became executive secretary. The five other members were drawn from the air carrier and aircraft-manufacturing industries and the academic community.
Wednesday, April 11, 1962:FAA announced that the first appointee as Assistant Administrator for Appraisal would assume his duties on April 16, with responsibility for evaluating the agency’s operations both in Washington and the seven regions. On May 16, 1962, a formal order set forth the functions of the new Office of Appraisal.
Monday, April 16, 1962:The new FAA Internal Directives System became effective. It substituted a single, uniform, agency wide system in place of the previous diversity of directive types, formats, and numbering schemes.
Wednesday, May 16, 1962:In accordance with the recommendations of Project Searchlight (see August 1, 1960), the Aviation Facilities Service ceased to exist. FAA reorganized the service’s diverse component parts by function, combining them with other organizational units to form two new specialized services. The new Installation and Materiel Service had responsibility for the acquisition, construction, and installation of air navigation, air traffic control, and aeronautical communication facilities, whether for the National Airspace System, international programs, or foreign governments. The service was also responsible for procurement and management of real and personal property, transportation, and procurement of services in support of all agency programs. The new Systems Maintenance Service received the mission of maintaining facilities and equipment for air traffic control, air navigation, and aeronautical communications.
Wednesday, May 16, 1962:FAA formally established a new Office of Policy Development with the mission of developing broad policy and objectives and the plans required to carry them out. On the same day, FAA created an Office of Compliance and Security in an action that consolidated these two functions organizationally. Previously, compliance matters had been handled by a staff assistant to the Deputy Administrator (later Associate Administrator) for Administration, and security matters were the concern of a division in the Office of Personnel and Training. The new office had the mission of assuring the highest possible standards of ethical, trustworthy, and nondiscriminatory conduct among employees, the physical security of information and property, and the conduct of investigations to meet the agency’s needs. (See November 18, 1969.)
Tuesday, May 22, 1962:An explosion blew the tail off a Continental Air Lines 707 flying over southern Iowa, killing all 45 persons aboard. Officials later cited the probable cause as a dynamite detonation in a rear lavatory. On June 5, a government/industry steering committee headed by FAA Administrator Halaby convened to review efforts to combat the aircraft bombing hazard.
Tuesday, June 19, 1962:The FAA Administrator approved a standard organizational configuration for regional headquarters for FAA’s seven regions, to be implemented by October 1, 1962. Besides the regional assistant administrator and his deputy, the organizational plan provided for an executive officer and divisions in large measure paralleling the office and service structure at the national headquarters. Any deviation from the standard pattern that might be needed to meet special local conditions would require specific approval by the Administrator.
Friday, June 29, 1962:The British Aircraft Corporation’s VC-10 first flew. On April 29, 1964, this long-range jet airliner with four engines in lateral pairs on each side of the rear fuselage entered scheduled service with a BOAC flight from London to Lagos, Nigeria.
June 1962:FAA established a Psychiatric Services Staff within its Aviation Medical Service to assure that the agency’s medical program would give proper emphasis to the psychological dimension and needs of the nation’s airmen.
Monday, July 9, 1962: Effective this date, a new FAA rule required supplemental (”nonsked”) airlines to conduct proving flights on new or materially altered aircraft before placing them in service. In effect, the new rule extended to the supplementals the provisions of a rule already applying to the scheduled airlines, requiring such aircraft to be flight tested a total of 100 hours, including 50 hours of en route operation and at least 10 hours at night. The new rule was one of several tightening-up measures deemed necessary when the supplementals’ safety record, which had been excellent, deteriorated in 1960 and 1961. (See November 8, 1961, and July 10, 1962.)
Tuesday, July 10, 1962:An amendment to the Federal Aviation Act regularized the role in U.S. air commerce of the supplemental carriers (see January 29, 1959) after a court decision made new legislation necessary. The new law authorized the Civil Aeronautics Board to issue to such carriers limited charter certificates and to grant temporary authority for individually ticketed service where required to meet special public needs for air transportation. Increased emphasis on the safety of supplementals was reflected in provisions of the law that mandated certain fitness requirements and permitted the Board to require these airlines to carry adequate insurance and to furnish performance bonds.
Friday, August 31, 1962:FAA Administrator Halaby created the Office of Assistant Administrator for General Aviation Affairs to supersede the function of Special Assistant for General Aviation (see late March 1962). The mixed nature of the agency’s programs involving general aviation made their grouping in a line-of-authority relationship under one office impractical; hence, the new office functioned as the focal point in matters concerning the general aviation field. The new office also had responsibility for congressional relations and for aviation education matters.
Tuesday, September 4, 1962:Executive Order 11048 vested authority for the civil administration of Wake Island in the Secretary of the Interior and make effective an earlier agreement between the FAA Administrator and the Secretary of the Interior. Under the agreement, FAA assumed responsibility for the civil administration of this Pacific island, exercising executive, legislative, and judicial authorities. The FAA Administrator also promulgated a new Wake Island Code, which greatly strengthened the legal system and reduced previous administrative uncertainty. (See June 24, 1972.)
Friday, October 12, 1962:At the Administrator’s direction, the Office of the General Counsel assumed sole responsibility for drafting of FAA safety rules. This action ended a situation in which the Office of the General Counsel had shared rule drafting responsibility with other major FAA components.
Monday, October 15, 1962:Public Law 87-820 transferred final responsibility for the aircraft loan guarantee program from the Civil Aeronautics Board to the Secretary of Commerce. (See September 7, 1957, and June 13, 1968.)
Monday, October 15, 1962:An experiment testing FAA’s capability to provide air traffic control service to interceptor aircraft of the Air Force’s Air Defense Command (ADC) during military operations got underway in FAA’s Central Region. The experiment was born of the need to end a situation in which two organizations–FAA, controlling civil aircraft, and ADC, controlling its interceptor aircraft–were directing aircraft movements in the same airspace at the same time. This need, which had caused concern for some time, was intensified by the implementation of the area positive control program (see October 15, 1960-March 1, 1961). In the test, ADC’s pilots received air traffic control service from FAA controllers for scramble, flight en route to target, and recovery; for actual intercept, they were handed off to ADC intercept directors. The test ended successfully on April 6, 1963, and pending formalization of the program, FAA continued providing services as during the test period. (See September 9, 1963.)
Sunday, October 21, 1962:FAA Administrator Halaby dedicated the Civil Aeromedical Research Institute’s new $8.5 million custom-designed building at the Aeronautical Center, Oklahoma City (see October 31, 1959). Key programs continued in the new facility included investigation of such topics as: the “true” age of pilots as opposed to their chronological age; effects of certain prescription drugs on aircrew members; crash-impact survival; methods for selecting trainee controllers, stress experienced by controllers, and the bearing of such stress on the desirability of an early retirement program.
Sunday, October 21, 1962:Under the air route traffic control center consolidation program first announced in 1959, FAA phased out the Pittsburgh center and transferred its operational responsibilities to the Cleveland center.
Monday, October 22, 1962:President Kennedy made a national broadcast on the Cuban missile crisis and U.S. “quarantine” of Cuba. On the previous day, FAA had set up a temporary air traffic control tower at Key West about 5 hours after receiving a request for this action to assist military operations. During the crisis, the Miami air route traffic control center became a focal control point for air operations to support preparedness. The center also administered a special regulation, placed in effect on October 24, banning civil flights over the southern two-thirds of Florida and adjacent waters without a flight plan or functioning navigational equipment and two-way radio.
Monday, November 5, 1962:FAA announced acceptance of a design concept for a standard air traffic control tower. Prepared by the New York architectural firm I. M. Pei and Associates, the concept featured a free-standing tower providing greater visibility from the cab, improved space for operating radio and radar equipment, and a better environment for air traffic control personnel. Acceptance of the Pei design was recommended by FAA engineers and the agency’s Design Advisory Committee, a group of citizens prominent in the fields of architecture or design. (See December 14, 1964.)
Saturday, November 17, 1962:Ceremonies marked the opening of Dulles International Airport. Scheduled airline service began two days later. Air carrier operations reached a daily level of 72 by mid-1963, and operations of all types for fiscal 1964 totaled 111,071. (See July 15, 1959.)
November 1962:FAA Administrator Halaby invited the civil aviation heads of 93 friendly foreign countries to meet individually with him in Washington during 1963. The aim was to discuss developments in aeronautical matters and stimulate thinking on measures to advance world progress in civil aviation. By the end of 1963, 25 such officials had visited FAA or were planning visits.
Saturday, December 15, 1962:FAA authorized simultaneous instrument approaches and landings on parallel runways at Chicago’s O’Hare International Airport to relieve traffic backup during peak-activity periods. The agency approved this air traffic control innovation only after extensive testing under both simulated and actual conditions. Participating pilots had to operate under instrument flight rules, regardless of weather. They were radar vectored by the tower’s approach controllers from four outer fixes to one of the two final approach ILS courses.
Primary Sources:
Dated items along the left margin of the FAA History Pages were compiled from the series of FAA’s ‘Historical Chronology’ PDF files. For a list and links to uploaded copies of these PDF files, see aiReform’s ‘FAA History’ main page (link above).
Additional content has been compiled from Wikipedia and other sources; these items are presented along the right margin, and include significant accidents, Whistleblower case actions, various news items, ATC technology developments, links to related material, comments, etc. Further content will be added at a later date.