FAA History: 1968

Monday, January 1, 1968:The Federal Aviation Administration began a one-year study of the causes of near-collisions in the air, hoping to gather data for developing effective counteractive measures. Since the study’s success depended on the full and frank cooperation of those involved, FAA granted immunity from any enforcement or other adverse action, remedial or disciplinary, to any person involved in a near miss that had been voluntarily reported to FAA during the course of the study. On December 18, FAA extended the program for an additional year. (See June 7, 1961, and July 15, 1969.)
Monday, January 15, 1968:An FAA technical team began a review of modifications made by Boeing to its supersonic transport (SST) prototype design (variable-sweep-wing model 2707-200). The team found that these changes, by increasing the aircraft’s weight, had resulted in a poor weight-payload ratio. This overweight factor limited range and payload to such an extent that the prototypes calculated performance fell well below the specifications for the Phase III contract. (With a full payload, the 2707-200 had a range of only 2,775 statute miles.) An amendment to the Phase III contract, dated March 29, 1968, required Boeing to submit to FAA by January 15, 1969, a fully substantiated design capable of meeting the Phase III contract criteria for the prototype airplane. (See June 5, 1967, and October 21, 1968.)
Friday, January 19, 1968:FAA Administrator McKee approved the realignment of the functions of the Associate Administrator for Personnel and Training (see October 1, 1965). Under the new organizational structure, the agency established a separate Office of Personnel and a separate Office of Training, as well as a Manpower and Planning Staff and an Executive and Military Personnel Staff. This realignment provided a closer grouping among traditional personnel and training functions and permitted a quicker response to agency needs. The new office became operational on February 1, 1968.
January 1968:A group of dissatisfied air traffic controllers in the New York area formed the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO). By the end of June 1968, PATCO had a national membership of well over 5,000 FAA employees. (See January 17, 1962, and July 3, 1968.)
Wednesday, February 21, 1968:A sustained wave of U.S. air carrier hijackings began when a fugitive aboard a Delta Air Lines DC-8 forced the pilot to divert to Havana. By July 17, four more U.S. airliners had been diverted to the same destination. On July 19, FAA announced that specially trained FAA safety inspectors (“sky marshals”) had begun boarding Florida-bound airline flights (see August 10, 1961, and October 28, 1970). The inspectors, sworn in as deputy U.S. marshals after being trained at the U.S. Border Patrol Academy, were generally assigned to flights on a random, unannounced basis. Hijackings continued, however, and a total of twelve airliners and six general aviation aircraft were diverted to Cuba during 1968. (See January 1969.)
Monday, February 26, 1968:FAA issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking inviting comments on the advisability of requiring general aviation pilots to carry crash locator beacons when flying over large bodies of water, mountainous terrain, or remote areas. The agency cited a growing body of opinion that the device would be useful in the rapid location of crash sites and survivors. FAA had begun testing the equipment in 1963, and had subsequently encouraged its use (see January 9, 1964). The agency had resisted regulatory action, however, because of the equipment’s high cost and the need for related airborne search units used to “home in” on the crash site. (See March 20, 1969.)
Monday, February 26, 1968:FAA put into operation it’s National Airspace Communications System (NASCOM), a daily nationwide telephone conference. NASCOM connected the Administrator, Deputy Administrator, the associate administrators, the heads of FAA’s operating services, the regional directors, and area managers in the contiguous United States, and the directors of NAFEC and the Aeronautical Center in a telephone discussion of the status of the National Airspace System (NAS). The agency developed NASCOM because of the need to keep Washington headquarters closely and constantly in touch with activities in the NAS.
February 1968:An FAA study noted the growing volume of mail receiving air transportation in recent years with special emphasis on first-class mail moved on a space available basis. About 95 percent of first-class mail traveling over 200 miles currently moved by air. The study predicted that mail by air would continue to increase steadily and that the use of air taxis would be expanded to expedite overnight delivery to additional communities. (See December 18, 1967, and Calendar year 1968.)
Friday, March 1, 1968:The Point Barrow, AK, flight service station went into operation, becoming FAA’s northernmost facility (71 degrees 22 minutes north latitude). FAA’s southernmost facility, located at 14 degrees 16 minutes south latitude, was the Pago Pago international flight service station in American Samoa.
Saturday, March 16, 1968:Under a rule effective this date, FAA prohibited VFR (visual flight rules) operations at or above 10,000 feet above mean sea level unless a pilot enjoyed a minimum visibility of five miles while remaining at least 1,000 feet vertically and one mile horizontally from cloud formations.
Spring 1968: The Stored Program AlphaNumerics (SPAN) equipment transferred to the New York air route traffic control center in 1966, and subsequently renamed Beacon AlphaNumerics (BAN), was dismantled and shipped to Atlanta, where it was to augment the ARTS I configuration at that terminal area. (ARTS and BAN hardware components were virtually identical.) While BAN had been perfectly capable of handling the en route traffic assigned to the Indianapolis ARTCC, it was incapable of meeting the considerably greater control demands imposed by the New York center, which had perhaps the most difficult radar beacon and traffic control environment in the United States. The chief difficulties with BAN in New York were those growing out of the configuration’s limited capacity. BAN could cover only nine of the center’s 37 sectors. Consequently, aircraft were flying out of sectors with automation into sectors without automation, and vice versa. (See February 1966.)
Monday, April 1, 1968:Consolidation of several airlines in Alaska occurred as Alaska Coastal Airlines merged into Alaska Airlines, which had absorbed Cordova Airlines on February 1, 1968. On the same day, a merger of Northern Consolidated Airlines and Wien Alaska Airlines created a new intrastate carrier, Wien Consolidated Airlines.
Wednesday, April 17, 1968:Bonanza Air Lines and West Coast Airlines merged with Pacific Air Lines to form Air West, which was renamed Hughes Air West in July 1970, following its acquisition by Howard Hughes.
Tuesday, April 30, 1968:FAA banned Special VFR (visual flight rules) operations by fixed-wing aircraft at 33 major airports, under a rule effective this date. Special VFR operations are visual operations conducted under less than basic VFR weather minimums. The new rule continued to permit such operations in the control zones of other airports served by a radar-equipped control tower, though priority would be given to aircraft operating under instrument flight rules (IFR). The rule also continued to permit special VFR operations in airport control zones not served by radar, but only when IFR operations were not being conducted. The growing number of high performance aircraft, coupled with the continuing increase in air traffic, necessitated this reduction in special VFR operations.
Thursday, May 2, 1968:The Beechcraft Model 99 received FAA type certification. The aircraft was a twin-engine, 17-passenger turboprop designed specifically for the scheduled air taxi market.
Monday, May 20, 1968:The Johnson Administration submitted two legislative proposals dealing with airport and airway development to Congress. One bill provided for Federal loans to sponsors of public airport development, and for a small Federal grant-in-aid program to certain airports. The other bill provided for expanded user taxes, with revenues generated by these taxes being used to fund airway development. Both proposals were an outgrowth of President Johnson’s letter to Secretary Boyd calling for a long-range airways development plan (see September 20, 1967).
The Senate Commerce Committee rejected the airport loan proposal in a report issued July 1. Instead, the committee favored a grant-in-aid program for airports of $150 million a year — double the amount authorized at that time by the Federal Airport Act (see September 20, 1961). In addition, the committee recommended the establishment of an aviation trust fund — a concept opposed by the Administration — into which would go all revenues generated by user taxes and other congressional appropriations to FAA. All FAA programs and operations would be funded through this fund.
The committee reported out a bill based on these recommendations. Although the 90th Congress failed to act on this measure, it later became the basis of the Airport and Airway Development and Revenue Acts of 1970. (See June 16, 1969, and May 21, 1970.)
Monday, May 27, 1968:FAA announced that Washington National was the first airport in the U.S. to have its main instrument runway equipped with color-coded centerline lights for greater safety in low-visibility weather. Alternate red and white lights cautioned pilot that they were entering the last 3,000 feet of runway, while all-red centerline lights marked the last 1,000 feet.
Thursday, June 13, 1968:The Secretary of Transportation delegated responsibility for administering the aircraft loan guarantee program to the FAA Administrator. The Department of Transportation Act of 1966 had transferred final loan guarantee responsibility from the Secretary of Commerce to the Secretary of Transportation. Authority to guarantee loans under the act had lapsed in 1967, but was renewed in 1973 with changes that included an increase of the maximum limit per carrier to $30 million. (See October 15, 1962, and September 7, 1977.)
Thursday, June 20, 1968:FAA abolished the Northway (Alaska) Area Office and transferred its duties to the Fairbanks Area Office. (See April 23, 1959.)
Friday, June 21, 1968:The U.S. Department of Labor ruled that FAA’s age-60 rule on airline pilot retirement represented a “bona fide occupational qualification” (BFOQ) under the provisions of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967. On April 20, 1977, however, a U.S. appeals court held in the case of Houghton v. McDonnell Douglas that age did not necessarily constitute a BFOQ for test pilots. (See March 15, 1960, and January 24, 1974.)
Sunday, June 30, 1968:The Lockheed C-5A Galaxy, a long-range military heavy transport, made its first flight. On September 30, 1965, the Air Force had selected Lockheed to develop and produce the heavy logistics transport aircraft. The C-5A was powered by four General Electric TF39-GE-1 turbofan engines, each rated at 41,000 pounds of thrust. Intended primarily as a freighter, the aircraft’s maximum takeoff weight was 728,000 pounds; its design payload, 220,000 pounds. On December 17, 1969, the Lockheed C-5A transport was formerly turned over to the U.S. Air Force during ceremonies at Marietta, GA, where the aircraft was manufactured.
Sunday, June 30, 1968: During fiscal 1968, which ended on this date, the U.S. Weather Bureau transferred responsibility for the Pilot Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS) to FAA. Also during this fiscal year, airports to accommodate STOL (short takeoff and landing) aircraft were for the first time included in the National Airport Plan, which covered the years 1967-73. Twenty-five potential STOLports were identified in the eastern megalopolis and along the west coast, both areas of dense traffic deemed a ready market for short-haul operations within and between cities. (See November 5, 1966, and August 5, 1968.)
Monday, July 1, 1968:FAA implemented Project 85, a general aviation accident prevention program, for a two-year trial in the Central and Southwest Regions. Under the program, an accident-prevention specialist at each general aviation district office was to stimulate and focus cooperation of the aviation public, the aviation industry, and the government agencies toward a substantial reduction in general aviation accidents. (See November 30, 1970.)
Monday, July 1, 1968: Effective this date, FAA included on its list of emergency procedures the dropping of chaff by pilots experiencing a communications failure or wishing for any other reason to declare an in-flight emergency. The chaff (strips of tinfoil or other radio-wave-reflecting material) would cause radar echoes to attract the attention of air traffic controllers.
Monday, July 1, 1968:FAA transferred the Aeromedical Education Division from the Office of Aviation Medicine, FAA Headquarters, Washington, DC, to FAA’s Aeronautical Center, Oklahoma City, OK.
Wednesday, July 3, 1968:PATCO president Michael J. Rock announced “Operation Air Safety,” which he described as a campaign among PATCO members to maintain FAA-prescribed separation standards between aircraft. Rock said that FAA supervisors were violating these standards to accommodate the high levels of traffic, but that thereafter PATCO-affiliated controllers would “go by the procedures in the manual.” (See January, 1968, and July 19, 1968.)
Monday, July 15, 1968:By this date, FAA had commissioned the first Bright Radar Indicator Tower Equipment (BRITE-1) systems at the Newark, Dallas (Love), and Birmingham airport towers (see April 27, 1960). The system presented a televised image of a radar display, an image distinct enough to be used by tower cab controllers in daylight. FAA had used such televised displays on a limited basis since the mid-1960s, then ordered the BRITE-1 from ITT in March 1967. The agency subsequently procured two upgraded versions of the system, which were designated BRITE-2 and BRITE-4. By July 1979, there were approximately 394 BRITEs in service, some of which provided a remote display of radar data at satellite airports without radar transmitters. A Bright Alphanumeric Subsystem (BANS) was used to convert digital data from Automated Radar Terminal Systems (ARTS) for presentation on BRITE displays. In July 1986, FAA ordered approximately 400 Digital Bright Radar Indicator Tower Equipment (DBRITE) systems from Unisys as part of a joint procurement with the Defense Department. DBRITE was expected to provide a simplified and more reliable replacement for both BRITE and BANS. By the end of fiscal year 1992, FAA had completed installation of the DBRITE systems.
Monday, July 15, 1968:The New York Common Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Room at John F. Kennedy International Airport went into limited operation by taking over the manual IFR operations controlled by the Kennedy TRACON (terminal radar approach control facility). The Common IFR Room then took over manual IFR operations controlled by the Newark and La Guardia airports’ TRACONS in August and September. This consolidation permitted more flexible and efficient air traffic control. Under the old scheme, each of the control facilities at Kennedy, Newark, and La Guardia had been assigned airspace with more or less inviolable boundaries separated by large buffer zones. Because of the slowness of communications between the control facilities, boundaries and buffer zones could not be easily shifted to meet changes in traffic flow. In the Common IFR Room, however, controllers working different control areas were within easy reach of each other; when necessary, they were able to shift boundaries and buffers almost instantaneously. (See June 1, 1969.)
Monday, July 15, 1968:Aeroflot Soviet Airlines and Pan American World Airways inaugurated twice-weekly scheduled passenger service between Moscow and New York as an Aeroflot Ilyushin IL-62 departed Moscow and flew to Kennedy International Airport via Montreal. A Pan American Boeing 707 departed Kennedy that evening and, after an intermediate stop in Denmark, arrived at Moscow on July 16. Aeroflot had been issued a foreign air carrier permit by the Civil Aeronautics Board on June 15, 1968 and the President approved the CAB permit on June 19, 1968. (See November 4, 1966, and June 19, 1973.)
Wednesday, July 17, 1968:The Department of Transportation formed an Air Traffic Control Advisory Committee for the purpose of recommending air traffic control systems and requirements for the 1980s and beyond. (See December 1969.)
Friday, July 19, 1968:Air traffic congestion reached critical proportions when a total of 1,927 aircraft in the vicinity of New York City were delayed in taking off or landing, some for as long as three hours. The jam, which spread to other major transportation hubs, was exacerbated by PATCO’s decision to conduct a slowdown. (See July 3, 1968, and January 15, 1969.) At the root of the problem, however, was the inability of an inadequate and long-neglected air traffic control and airport system to accommodate the heavy tourist-season traffic. The jam was symptomatic of conditions that forced FAA to develop schedule restrictions for certain airports. (See June 1, 1969.)
Sunday, July 21, 1968:President Johnson signed Public Law 90-411, which amended the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 to require aircraft noise abatement regulation. The act vested in the FAA Administrator the power, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, to: prescribe and amend standards for the measurement of aircraft-engine noise and sonic boom; prescribe noise standards as criteria for aircraft certification; require the retrofit of existing aircraft with quieter engines or noise-abating devices; enforce operating procedures that reduce noise; and ban overland supersonic flights of civil aircraft. (See December 1, 1969, and October 27, 1972.)
Wednesday, July 31, 1968:General William F. McKee resigned as FAA Administrator effective this date (see July 1, 1965). On August 1, 1968, Secretary of Transportation Alan S. Boyd designated FAA Deputy Administrator David D. Thomas as Acting Administrator. No one was named to the FAA Administrator post during the remaining months of the Johnson Administration. (See March 24, 1969.)
Monday, August 5, 1968:The first STOLport (short takeoff and landing facility) for commercial aircraft in the United States opened at LaGuardia Airport in New York City. The STOLport, 1,095 feet long, would be used for VFR flying only. (See June 30, 1968, September 23, 1968, and October 17, 1971.)
Wednesday, August 7, 1968:An FAA rule effective this date required deployment-assisting devices on parachutes for static-line jumps. The rule responded to a number of static-line parachuting accidents caused by improper extensions of the pilot chute or by entanglement of parachutes with jumpers. (See March 24, 1967.)
Thursday, August 8, 1968:Congress exempted FAA air traffic control personnel from those provisions of Public Law 90-364 limiting the number of full-time civilian employees in the executive branch to the total employed on June 30, 1966. Controller shortages at the large air hubs and the busier centers, coupled with a more rapid than expected increase in air traffic necessitated the need for additional controllers.
Monday, September 23, 1968:Washington Airlines began the nation’s first regularly scheduled short takeoff and landing (STOL) service. The new air shuttle service, using 11-passenger, twin-engined Dornier Skyservants linked the Washington, DC, area’s three major airports: Washington National, Dulles International, and Baltimore Friendship. (The service proved short-lived, however, since the airline ceased operations on September 26, 1969.) Also on September 23, 1968, FAA issued design guidance for developing STOL airport facilities, recommending runways 1,500 feet long and 100 feet wide, taxiways 60 feet wide, and pavements strong enough to support 150,000-pound STOL transports. STOLports at close-in locations were expected to alleviate some of the air traffic congestion at large conventional airports. To further encourage their development, FAA on November 5, 1970, issued an advisory circular providing criteria and specific information for planning, designing, and constructing such facilities. (August 5, 1968, and April 29, 1971.)
Saturday, September 28, 1968: Under provisions of a rule effective this date, FAA required an approved altitude alerting system to be installed on all U.S. civil turbojet aircraft by February 29, 1972. Aided by this device, a pilot climbing or descending to a pre-selected altitude would be alerted, by signals to both eye and ear, in sufficient time to establish level flight at the desired altitude. The device would also provide a warning if the pilot strayed from an assigned altitude. FAA considered this necessary because of the dangers posed by inadvertent aircraft deviations from assigned or predetermined flight lanes in an environment increasingly populated by turbojets possessing capability for rapid climb and descent.
Sunday, September 29, 1968:An FAA-sponsored report released this date outlined four optional plans for modernizing 27-year-old Washington National Airport through a new or enlarged terminal building, more vehicular parking, the accommodation of a rapid transit station, and such airport-related facilities as a hotel and office building. In its 1972 budget submission, FAA unsuccessfully requested $26 million as the Federal share of a modernization program for which air carriers and concessionaires were expected to contribute $131 million.
Tuesday, October 1, 1968:The first partial instrument landing system (ILS) to be paid for and installed without Federal financial assistance was commissioned at the Westmoreland-Latrobe County Airport, Latrobe, PA. Later, on May 1, 1969, the Outagamie Airport, Appleton, WI, installed the first full ILS to be purchased without benefit of Federal funds. A partial ILS includes outer and middle markers and a localizer, while a full ILS also includes a glide slope.
Thursday, October 10, 1968:Enactment of Public Law 90-566 authorized higher overtime pay for certain FAA employees. Those non-managerial employees with duties critical to the daily operation of the air traffic control and navigation system became eligible for overtime pay at one and a half times their regular pay in grades up to and including GS-14. The affected employees — who worked in air traffic control, flight inspection of navigational aids, and airway facility maintenance — were thus excepted from a general ceiling that limited overtime pay to one and a half times the regular pay for the first step of pay grade GS-10.
Monday, October 14, 1968:A new Part 123 of the Federal Aviation Regulations went into effect, upgrading safety requirements for air travel clubs using large aircraft (over 12,500 pounds). This new part was intended to raise the clubs’ maintenance and operating standards to the safety level of airlines and commercial operators certificated under Part 121 (see December 31, 1964), but without imposing onerous or inappropriate requirements. The affected clubs were required to cease operations after December 1 unless they applied for a certificate under the new Part 123. Those that applied were permitted to operate without such a certificate until February 1, 1969.
Monday, October 21, 1968:The Boeing Company formally announced it had abandoned its variable-sweep-wing design for the U.S. supersonic transport (SST) in favor of a conventional fixed-wing. The company’s engineers had never been able to overcome the weight penalties imposed by the variable-sweep wing design. Boeing would submit the new design to FAA for approval in January 1969. (See January 15, 1968, and January 15, 1969.)
Wednesday, October 23, 1968:The National Transportation Safety Board announced that aircraft accident investigation reports would be available, upon request, to the public. The Board took this action to make the disclosure of aircraft accident information consistent with the Freedom of Information Act.
October 1968:FAA resumed basic air traffic control training at the FAA Academy in Oklahoma City. Since the fall of 1962, apprentice ATC specialists had been receiving their basic training on the firing line — at towers, centers, or flight service stations, depending on their specialty. This procedure had worked satisfactorily when the ATC work force was declining (as it was between June 1963 and June 1967). By mid-1968, however, the number of ATC trainees had ballooned to 10 percent of the total ATC specialist work force. Training a contingent of this size required a faster, more efficient, and more formal training program. (See Calendar year 1968.)
Wednesday, November 13, 1968:President-elect Richard M. Nixon announced that “a first priority of my Administration will be to strengthen our air-controller force, improve their working conditions and provide them with new equipment they need to keep our airways safe.”
Thursday, November 21, 1968:The first U.S. rapid transit system linking an airport to a downtown area began operating in Cleveland between Hopkins International Airport and the city’s Union Terminal. This rail service provided easy access to the airport from most sections of Cleveland.
Friday, November 22, 1968: In accordance with a plan approved in February 1968, FAA ordered a realignment of relationships between its regional and area offices. The aim was to give area managers more time for day-to-day operational functions by shifting many functions to the regional headquarters. In the area of facilities and equipment, the regions assumed responsibility for contracting, program control, and installation; however, the area offices continued to make site investigations, perform preliminary engineering and planning, and participate in acceptance inspections. The regions assumed final authority for air carrier enforcement actions; however, area offices, in conjunction with general aviation district offices, continued to handle all air taxi and general aviation enforcement actions. The area compliance and security branches, and the area counsels, were abolished and their functions assumed by the regions. The area budget and management branches were also abolished, and the area offices retained only small administrative staffs. Field offices and facilities now submitted requests for budgetary resources directly to the regional offices. The regional offices assumed all formal management analysis functions. The regions also provided a full range of personnel and training services to the area offices, which retained only small personnel and training staffs. This realignment was the first such change since the 18 area offices in the contiguous United States had been established under the agency’s long-range decentralization program (see May 18, 1965, and May 22, 1969).
Wednesday, November 27, 1968:An FAA circular outlined modifications to airport terminal facilities to assist physically disabled persons traveling by air. Areas requiring improvement included: vehicular loading areas, parking areas, doors, stairways, elevators, escalators, toilet facilities, drinking fountains, telephones, signs, and signals.
Wednesday, November 27, 1968:FAA formally established an Office of Aviation Economics and an Office of Aviation Policy and Plans under the Associate Administrator for Plans. At the same time, the Office of Noise Abatement was transferred to the Associate Administrator for Plans from the Associate Administrator for Operations. (See July 21, 1967, August 28, 1967, and December 22, 1970.)
Sunday, December 15, 1968:New classification and qualification standards for air traffic control specialists became effective this date. The new standards, developed by the Civil Service Commission, simplified procedures for career development within the occupation. FAA upgraded 9,234 ATC specialist positions within six months after the new standards went into effect. (See June 26, 1961.)
Saturday, December 21, 1968:The United States launched Apollo 8, the first manned mission to orbit the moon. (See July 20, 1969.)
Monday, December 30, 1968:The data-processing capability of the NAS En Route Stage A system at the Jacksonville (FL) ARTCC went into operation on a part-time basis. The system’s new computer complex processed and automatically updated flight plans filed by pilots with the Jacksonville ARTCC area. (See May 24, 1965, and February 18, 1970.)
Tuesday, December 31, 1968:The Soviet Union’s Tupolev TU-144 prototype became the world’s first supersonic transport to make its maiden flight. (See entry for December 11, 1967.)
Calendar Year 1968:The air taxi business was the fastest growing component of general aviation thus far during the 1960s. As of November 1, 1968, scheduled air-taxi operators in the United States numbered 240, with 1,272 aircraft in use. Less than five years earlier, on January 1, 1964, there had been only 12 scheduled air-taxi operators, with 72 aircraft in use. The main demand for this “third level” of service had come from people desiring air transportation from outlying points not served by local-service or trunk airlines. Another important part of the growth was in air-taxi carriage of the U.S. mail. (See September 7, 1964, February 1968, and July 1, 1969.) Also during this year, FAA-approved courses in air traffic management were offered as part of the regular 1968-69 curriculum by a number of junior colleges participating in an FAA-organized cooperative aviation education program designed to help meet the critical need for air traffic control personnel. Under the program, FAA tested applicant students for suitability for ATC work. Those enrolled served tours of duty at FAA installations while pursuing their college work. During their first semester of ATC course work, these students were employed as GS-3 flight data aids; they were to become eligible for promotion for GS-4 during their second semester. (See June 29, 1948, and October 1968.)
Primary Sources:
Dated items along the left margin of the FAA History Pages were compiled from the series of FAA’s ‘Historical Chronology’ PDF files. For a list and links to uploaded copies of these PDF files, see aiReform’s ‘FAA History’ main page (link above).
Additional content has been compiled from Wikipedia and other sources; these items are presented along the right margin, and include significant accidents, Whistleblower case actions, various news items, ATC technology developments, links to related material, comments, etc. Further content will be added at a later date.