FAA History: 1976

Thursday, January 1, 1976:The Federal Aviation Administration issued a new air traffic control handbook, representing a consolidation of two formerly separate manuals–one on terminal and the other on en route air traffic control. To improve controller-pilot communications, FAA on April 26 announced publication of a new air traffic control glossary four times the length of that previously included in the Airmen’s Information Manual. The National Transportation Safety Board had recommended issuance of such a glossary after a crash at Berryville, VA (see December 1, 1974).
Friday, January 9, 1976:As of this date, FAA implemented a conflict alert system, capable of warning air traffic controllers of less-than-standard separation between aircraft under their control, at all 20 air route traffic control centers in the contiguous U.S. FAA added the new conflict alert capability to the radar data processing system of the NAS En Route Stage A center computers (see August 26, 1975). The new system projected the flight paths of all aircraft on the controllers’ radar sector for two minutes ahead, and flashed the relevant aircraft data tags if the projection showed the paths approaching closer than the required horizontal and vertical minimums. The controller could then radio appropriate orders to the aircraft to avoid a collision. The conflict alert system initially operated only above 18,000 feet, but by December 1978 all 20 centers had implemented it from the ground up. FAA later installed a similar capability in the Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) computers (see January 10, 1978).
Wednesday, January 21, 1976:British Airways and Air France began the world’s first scheduled supersonic passenger service (see December 26, 1975) with simultaneous takeoffs of Anglo-French Concorde SST aircraft from London and Paris for flights to Bahrain and Rio de Janeiro. The London-Bahrain flight, normally 6 hours 30 minutes by subsonic jet, took 4 hours 10 minutes. The Paris-Rio flight, scheduled to take 7 hours 5 minutes (compared with a subsonic time of 11 hours 10 minutes), arrived 40 minutes late. (See February 4, 1976.)
Wednesday, February 4, 1976:Secretary of Transportation William T. Coleman, Jr., announced his decision to permit the Anglo-French supersonic transport Concorde to land in the U.S. on a temporary, restricted basis. Air France and British Airways had made application in January 1975 to conduct limited commercial operations with the SST into New York Kennedy and Washington Dulles airports, proposing a maximum of four flights daily into Kennedy and two daily into Dulles. In an environmental impact statement issued in draft in March 1975 and in final on this date, FAA recommended granting the application on the grounds that the limited operations could not significantly harm the environment. Secretary Coleman authorized the proposed service for a trial period not to exceed 16 months.
Working with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Office of the Secretary, FAA developed plans for noise, sonic boom, and low altitude pollution monitoring of the Concorde to determine its environmental impact during the trial period. Devices to monitor noise and emissions were installed at Washington Dulles and surrounding communities, and most were in operation when Concorde service to Dulles began on May 24, 1976. Intense opposition from environmental and citizen groups in the New York area and a ban by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey delayed Concorde service at Kennedy. (See April 27, 1973, September 23, 1977, and October 17, 1977)
Sunday, February 15, 1976:FAA transferred the personnel and functions of its office at Beirut, Lebanon, to the office at Frankfurt, Germany, because of the continuation of the civil war that began in late 1975. The Beirut office had consisted basically of three inspectors who made sure that U.S.-registered aircraft operating in the Mediterranean and Middle East were airworthy and complied with Federal regulations (see June 30, 1965). An office later established at Rome, Italy, took over these functions.
Saturday, February 21, 1976:In exchange for higher salaries and shorter work hours, the pilots of Frontier Airlines accepted a contract calling for the elimination of the flight engineer from the crew of the Boeing 737. The Air Line Pilots Association executive board tried, but failed, to expel Frontier pilots from the union for violating the union’s by-laws. (See November 18-27, 1974, and May 7, 1977.)
Saturday, February 28, 1976:The Washington, DC, Flight Service Station moved to the Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) at Leesburg, VA, and FAA announced that it had ordered an AWANS (aviation weather and notice to airmen system) for installation at Leesburg. AWANS was computer-aided system to assist flight service specialists by displaying weather and aeronautical information on viewing screens. It had been under test at the flight service station (FSS) in Atlanta, GA, since July 1975. Once operational, FAA expected the Leesburg AWANS to take over the functions of the FSSs at Richmond and Charlottesville. This prototype would then be used to demonstrate the feasibility of consolidating several manual FSSs into a single automated station, and of collocating FSS and ARTCC facilities. The long-range plan was to establish AWANS-equipped FSS hubs at all 20 ARTCCs in the contiguous United States. (See February 4, 1964, and September 1977.)
Monday, March 1, 1976:A rule published on this date required removal of side-facing flight attendant seats from all airliners by May 1. In issuing the rule, FAA noted that flight attendants occupying side-facing seats were likely to receive more serious injuries during survivable accidents than passengers in forward-facing seats, and hence might be incapacitated at a time when their performance of emergency duties was most needed. (See February 15, 1980.)
Thursday, March 4, 1976:FAA announced a contract for the development of three engineering model Discrete Address Beacon System (DABS) ground sensors and 30 compatible transponders. This new advanced radar beacon system was designed to eventually replace ATCRBS, the existing air traffic control radar beacon system (see December 27, 1963). The chief advantage of DABS was its ability to interrogate and receive a transponder reply from a specific aircraft rather than from all aircraft in the zone of coverage. This would help eliminate the problem of overlapping and garbling of transponder replies from aircraft flying in close proximity to one another. Since DABS would address aircraft on an individual basis, it would also provide a vehicle for automatic communications between aircraft and the ground. This data link capability was seen as the basis for future implementation of a ground-based collision avoidance system called Intermittent Positive Control (IPC), later designated the Automatic Traffic Advisory and Resolution System (ATARS). (See March 1976.)
Sunday, March 21, 1976:Effective this date, FAA required foreign air carriers operating large aircraft to and from the United States in scheduled passenger operations to maintain security programs which would insure: that all passengers and property carried aboard their aircraft were subject to effective weapons screening procedures prior to boarding; that there was no unauthorized access to their aircraft; that no unauthorized weapons, bombs, or incendiary devices were carried aboard; that appropriate baggage security measures were in place; and that they were in compliance with the FARs in dealing with bomb threats and threats of hijacking. In addition, each foreign carrier was to provide the FAA Administrator upon his request information on the status of its screening program.
In addition, as of August 23, 1976, the FAA also required foreign carriers: to deny boarding to passengers refusing to permit their persons or property to be screened for weapons; ensure that their x-ray equipment in use at U.S. airports met minimum U.S. safety and effectiveness standards; and provided that the prohibition against carrying weapons aboard a foreign aircraft would not apply if the weapons, after inspection by the carrier, were in checked baggage and inaccessible to the passenger.
Spring, 1976:FAA installed a prototype wake vortex advisory system (VAS) at Chicago O’Hare airport (see November 1, 1975). The prototype’s computer was designed to analyze wind measurements collected in the runway area in order to predict aircraft wake turbulence, or give assurance of its absence. This would making it possible for controllers to safely reduce the separation distances between landing aircraft and thereby expand airport capacity. FAA subsequently removed the VAS, however, concluding that it did not provide sufficient data for the purpose. (See December 18, 1992.)
Wednesday, March 31, 1976:Several organizational changes became official this date at the FAA Headquarters. The Office of the Associate Administrator for Airports and the Airports Service were abolished and replaced by the Office of Airport Programs, headed by an assistant administrator who reported directly to the Administrator. The Metropolitan Washington Airports Service was converted to a field element headed by a director who also reported to the Administrator. Finally, the Office of the Associate Administrator for Aviation Safety lost its two largest components–the Flight Standards Service and the Civil Aviation Security Service, which now reported directly to the Administrator–and was renamed the Office of Aviation Safety, a small staff unit headed by an assistant administrator who reported to the Administrator. (See November 2, 1978 and June 13, 1979.)
Wednesday, March 31, 1976:FAA Deputy Administrator James E. Dow retired after 32 years of Federal service, all with CAA and FAA (see August 9, 1974). Dow had been Deputy or Acting Deputy since July 1973, and had served as Acting Administrator between the tenures of Administrators Butterfield and McLucas. (See March 25, 1975, November 24, 1975, and May 4, 1977.)
Wednesday, March 31, 1976:Responding to public and congressional concern about near collisions in the air, Administrator John L. McLucas announced a five-point separation assurance program: continued enhancement of ground-based air traffic control; consideration of increased use of Instrument Flight Rules and radar beacon surveillance; possible additional requirements for carriage of radar beacons (transponders) with altitude reporting capability; development of the Beacon Collision Avoidance System (BCAS); and development of Intermittent Positive Control (IPC), which would allow automatic transmission of collision warnings from ground facilities (see March 4, 1976).
The inclusion of BCAS represented a milestone in the long search for an airborne collision warning device that had been begun by the Air Transport Association in 1955. FAA began participating in 1959 by sponsoring a government-industry advisory group, but by the early 1970s was under fire for failure to achieve prompt deployment of such a system. At congressional request, the agency in 1972 undertook an evaluation of three forms of Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) developed by Honeywell, McDonnell-Douglas, and RCA. Within FAA, however, opinion tended to favor the BCAS system, which made use of radar transponders and was more compatible with the ground-based air traffic control system. On February 9, 1976, McLucas reported to Senator Howard Cannon that, although Honeywell’s system was the best of the three ACAS versions, increased separation assurance could best be achieved by other means, including development of BCAS. (See December 27, 1978.)
Thursday, April 15, 1976:The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) implemented a system for processing reports of aviation hazards and safety-related incidents while preserving the reporters’ anonymity (see August 15, 1975). FAA made certain modifications to its Aviation Safety Reporting Program (ASRP) that took effect on the same date that NASA’s participation began. Under the new policy, FAA would waive disciplinary action against all those involved in an incident provided a timely report was filed with NASA and certain other stipulations were fulfilled. FAA would not use reports for disciplinary purposes even if they involved reckless operation, gross negligence, or willful misconduct (although disciplinary action might be taken in such cases on the basis of information obtained independently). As before, no form of immunity was provided in cases involving accidents or criminal offenses, and FAA remained free to take remedial action to ensure safety. (See March 16, 1979.)
Tuesday, April 27, 1976:An American Airlines Boeing 727 crashed on landing at Charlotte Amalie on St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands, killing 37 of 88 persons aboard. The accident, the third crash of a jetliner at St. Thomas’s Truman Airport in less than 8 years, revived criticism of the airport as unsafe because of a short runway (4,650 feet), mountainous surroundings, and tricky winds. Later in the year, Transportation Secretary William T. Coleman announced that grants would be provided to assist in building a longer runway.
Wednesday, May 5, 1976:The United States, France, and the United Kingdom concluded an agreement providing for the monitoring of ozone levels in the stratosphere and cooperation to ensure that the ozone layer was not degraded by emissions from supersonic transports. (See February 4, 1976, and September 23, 1977.)
Monday, May 24, 1976:The FAA Depot at Oklahoma City completed a highly successful emergency resupply of the FAA Center/Approach Control (CERAP) facility on Guam following the destruction wrought three days earlier by Typhoon Pamela. The depot primarily resupplied air traffic control equipment lost when winds of up to 170 miles per hour swept the island.
Wednesday, June 2, 1976:In a suit brought by a citizens group known as Virginians for Dulles, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit held that the “vastly expanded use” of Washington National and Dulles International Airports over recent years required FAA to file Environmental Impact Statements concerning the operations of these airports. (See March 23, 1978.)
Sunday, June 6, 1976:The air route traffic control center at Great Falls, MT, closed after 34 years of service. Great Falls was the last of 10 centers phased out in a program begun in the early 1960s to consolidate en route air traffic control. Its closing left only 20 modernized ARTCCs within the contiguous U.S. FAA had been reducing the airspace controlled by Great Falls since 1970. (See Appendix V.)
Wednesday, June 30, 1976:FAA received delivery of the first prototype microwave landing system (MLS). The program–a high-priority undertaking begun in 1971 and participated in by FAA, DOD, and NASA–was considered a key element of the upgraded third generation air traffic control system (see July 1971). FAA planned to test the prototypes at the National Aviation Facilities Experimental Center, in Atlantic City, and at a NASA base in California. (See July 22, 1975, and March 16, 1977.)
Thursday, July 1, 1976:The principal provisions of FAA’s hazardous materials rules became incorporated into the regulations of DOT’s Materials Transportation Bureau. The change resulted from legislation that gave the Secretary of Transportation increased regulatory and enforcement authority over the movement of hazardous materials in all the transportation modes (see January 3, 1975). DOT had accordingly established the Materials Transportation Bureau, and transferred the authority for regulation of hazardous materials from the various administrations, including FAA, to the new Bureau (see September 23, 1977).
Monday, July 12, 1976:FAA put into effect a national beacon code allocation plan under which pilots flying in the contiguous U.S. would be able to keep the same radar beacon identification code from takeoff to landing, without having to change codes as had previously been required when they flew from one area or altitude to another.
Monday, July 12, 1976:President Ford signed Public Law 94-353, the Airport and Airway Development Act Amendments of 1976, ending a one-year lapse in authorization for Federal airport aid (see June 30, 1975). The legislation marked the third time that the Airport and Airway Development and Revenue Acts of 1970 were amended (see May 21, 1970, November 27, 1971, and June 18, 1973). The new law sharply raised the Airport Development Aid Program (ADAP) funding levels to a total of $2.73 billion for the five-year period 1976-1980. It also increased the Federal share for ADAP grants from 50 percent to 75 percent for the nation’s 67 largest airports. For smaller airports, the Federal share rose from 75 percent to 90 percent for fiscal 1976-78 and 80 percent for fiscal 1979-80. The Federal share for planning grants rose from 66 2/3 percent to 75 percent, with some exceptions. The new law simplified funding procedures and expanded the types of projects eligible for ADAP assistance to include snow removal equipment as well as equipment, barriers, landscaping, and land acquisition for the purpose of airport noise abatement.
In addition, the legislation authorized appropriations from the Airport and Airway Trust Fund during fiscal 1976-80 of : $1.3 billion for establishing and improving Federal air navigation facilities; $1.5 billion for maintaining such facilities; and $1.275 million to assist the states in developing their own general aviation airport standards. Other provisions of the law included authorizing the Secretary of Transportation to select four states to receive demonstration grants for administering the general aviation portion of the ADAP program (see November 24, 1976). The law also established commuter service airports, a new class of air carrier airport not served by carriers holding CAB certificates of public convenience and necessity. (See September 30, 1980.)
Monday, July 12, 1976:FAA redesignated its Office of Information Services the Office of Public Affairs, its name prior to a 1973 reorganization (see September 10, 1973). This change also transferred from Public Affairs the congressional correspondence function to the Executive Secretariat and the congressional liaison function to the Special Assistant for Legislative Affairs.
Wednesday, July 28, 1976:Capt. Eldon W. Joersz, USAF, piloted a Lockheed SR-71A “Blackbird” at 2,193.16 mph near Beale Air Force Base, CA, setting a Federation Aeronautique Internationale absolute world record for speed over a straight course. (See October 3, 1967.)
July 28-31, 1976:A slowdown by PATCO-affiliated air traffic controllers disrupted traffic around the country. PATCO president John F. Leyden had ordered the slowdown to protest the U.S. Civil Service Commission’s delay in completing a pay reclassification study for controllers. Leyden had also protested a Civil Service proposal to downgrade controllers at certain low-activity facilities. The slowdown ended when the Civil Service Commission agreed to reconsider its position and expedite the review, while FAA Administrator John L. McLucas publicly confirmed his support of upgradings at certain facilities. FAA took no disciplinary action against PATCO. (See May 7, 1975, and November 12, 1976.)
Tuesday, August 10, 1976:FAA announced a contract for enhancement of its ARTS III automated terminal radar systems (see August 13, 1975). Of the 65 existing ARTS III systems, 29 would be upgraded to ARTS IIIA installations by the addition of certain capabilities. The ARTS IIIA would provide radar tracking of aircraft not equipped with transponders, and enable controllers to place alphanumeric data tags on the scope to allow automatic reporting of identity and altitude for these targets (whereas the basic ARTS III displayed data tags only for transponder-equipped aircraft). The ARTS IIIA would also possess improved computer efficiency, as well as capacity for additional radar displays and for continued operations with reduced capabilities in the event of component failure (see March 1978). In addition, the contractor agreed to upgrade all 65 existing ARTS installations to permit air traffic control operations to be continuously recorded on magnetic disks.
The contract also called for the installation of a special ARTS IIIA system at the new New York terminal radar control room (TRACON). Ground-breaking for the building to house the TRACON had taken place during July at Long Island’s Mitchel Field. The new facility would replace the Common Radar Room at Kennedy International, which controlled traffic approaching and departing New York’s three major airports and several smaller airports. (See January 10, 1981.)
Finally, the contract provided for installation of four en route automated radar tracking systems (EARTS) at air route traffic control centers in Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, as well as at Nellis Air Force Base (see August 4, 1980).
Thursday, September 2, 1976:CAB approved Advance Booking Charter fares, available to anyone who paid 30 days in advance (or 45 days in advance for certain destinations) and not restricted to members of pre-existing “affinity groups.” Like the approval of One Stop Inclusive Tour Charters during the previous year, this move was part of a trend to liberalize charter regulations. The new competition from charter operators helped stimulate scheduled carriers to begin offering deeply discounted prepaid fares during 1977. (See June 10, 1977).
Friday, September 10, 1976:A British Airways Trident and a Yugoslav DC-9 collided over Zagreb, Yugoslavia, killing all 176 occupants of the two airplanes, a higher toll than in any previous civil midair collision. In May 1977, a Yugoslav court sentenced an air traffic controller to 7 years in prison for negligence in handling the two aircraft, the first known criminal prosecution of a civilian controller for negligent performance of duties.
Friday, September 10, 1976:The first successful hijacking of a scheduled American air carrier aircraft since comprehensive security measures were instituted on December 5, 1972, occurred when five Croatian nationalists commandeered a TWA jetliner en route from New York’s La Guardia Airport to Chicago. The hijackers seized the plane by threatening to blow it up with realistic-looking “bombs” they had assembled in a lavatory from an assortment of innocuous objects brought aboard on their persons and in their carry-on luggage. To bolster their deception, they revealed the location of a real bomb in a New York subway locker. That device exploded after removal to a disposal area, killing one policeman. The hijackers demanded that newspapers publish a pro-Croatian manifesto and that aircraft drop leaflets over cities in the U.S., Canada, England, and France. This was complied with, and the hijackers eventually surrendered in France.
Friday, October 1, 1976:Fiscal year 1977 began for the Federal government. This was the first Federal fiscal year to begin on October 1 instead of July 1. Fiscal 1976 had ended on June 30, 1976, and the following three months had been designated a transition quarter.
Friday, October 1, 1976:FAA began to receive the first prototypes of the ARTS II automated radar terminal system for testing and evaluation. Developed under contracts concluded in August and December 1974, FAA programmed the system for installation at 71 terminals whose traffic volume did not warrant the more highly automated and much more costly ARTS IIIs in use at the major hubs. Designed around a relatively low-cost minicomputer, the ARTS II lacked certain capabilities of the ARTS III but could provide controllers using it at airports with direct alphanumeric readouts of the identity, heading, and altitude of the transponder-equipped aircraft they were tracking. (See December 12, 1978)
Tuesday, October 5, 1976:The Labor Department certified the Federal Aviation Science and Technological Association (FASTA), a National Association of Government Employees union, as the exclusive bargaining representative of some 7,700 airway facilities employees. The employees had selected FASTA as their representative in an April 1976 election, but certification had been delayed by an objection by the American Federation of Government Employees. FAA and FASTA signed a national labor agreement in September 1977. (See December 31, 1981.)
Friday, October 15, 1976:A new nationwide standardized format went into effect for Pilot Reports (PIREPS), reports by en route pilots describing in-flight weather conditions as they encountered them. FAA, the National Weather Service, and Department of Defense personnel received and encoded PIREPS into the new format and fed them into a teletypewriter network for distribution to civil and military aviation facilities around the country. Replacing earlier informal reports given by the pilots in no particular order, the new format facilitated the reading and relay of PIREPS, and made them more adaptable for use with several automated weather communication systems FAA had under development.
Friday, November 5, 1976:FAA commissioned the first Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW) system, an add-on computer software feature specially devised for use with the ARTS III radar terminal system, at Los Angeles International Airport. MSAW had the capacity to spot unsafe conditions by automatically monitoring aircraft altitudes and comparing them to terrain maps stored in the computer’s memory. If aircraft descended dangerously close to the ground, aural and visual alarms on their consoles alerted controllers who could then radio warnings to pilots (see October 28, 1977). Sperry Rand’s UNIVAC division developed MSAW under a contract announced by FAA on July 17, 1974. The need for such a system had been highlighted by the crash of an L-1011 near Miami (see December 29, 1972).
Friday, November 12, 1976:The U.S. Civil Service Commission, in a reversal of a position taken earlier, announced its support for upgrading air traffic controllers at 8 of the nation’s busiest air traffic control facilities from GS-13 to GS-14. The Commission also approved the upgrading of controllers of lower grades at approximately 23 other installations, but insisted on downgradings at a few facilities. PATCO continued to demand better terms, backing its position with the threat of renewed slowdowns. On January 13, 1977, the Commission dropped its insistence on downgradings and approved promotions at some 45 facilities, including the GS-14 level at 8 locations. (See March 15, 1978.)
Wednesday, November 24, 1976:The Secretary of Transportation chose Arizona, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, and Michigan to participate in a four-state demonstration program mandated by Congress (see July 12, 1976). The chosen states administered Federal grants for the development of general aviation airports within their borders for fiscal 1977-78 to determine whether state agencies could manage these funds more effectively than FAA. Although FAA recommended that the demonstration be extended beyond fiscal 1978, Congress allowed the program to expire. (See October 1, 1989.)
Friday, December 10, 1976:FAA announced completion of the conversion of the airway intersection and waypoint identifiers on en route aeronautical charts to five-letter code names specifically designed for use in the filing of computerized flight plans. Under the old system, pilots had listed the identifier using a geographic name based on a nearby terrain feature or town, making it necessary for persons receiving the flight plan to change the name to a computer code–a task that took time and greatly increased the chance for coding error. On the same date, FAA also announced a similar program to convert the fix names on approach and departure charts within 2 to 3 years.
Tuesday, December 21, 1976:FAA deemed contact lenses permissible to meet the distance visual acuity requirements for all classes of airman medical certificates, by a rule effective this date. Previous FAA regulations governing medical certification had allowed for visual correction by eye glasses only, with exceptions being made under a time-consuming waiver process. The new rule eliminated the waiver procedure. It did not affect the eye glass requirement for correcting near visual acuity.
Thursday, December 23, 1976:FAA published a rule establishing deadlines for phased compliance of all jet transport aircraft with the noise standards already established for new aircraft types (see October 26, 1973). The agency gave operators whose fleets included aircraft that did not meet the standards the option of modifying or replacing them. FAA also required all two- and three-engine jets exceeding 75,000 lb. to comply within six years (by January 1, 1983), with half the total in each airline fleet to be in compliance at the end of four years. Aircraft in this category included the BAC-111, DC-9, Boeing models 727, 737, and 747-100. Non-complying four-engine jets were to meet the standards within eight years, with one-fourth of them complying within four years and one-half within six years. This category included the Convair 990, DC-8, and Boeing 707.
The rule did not immediately apply to foreign-flag aircraft or U.S. aircraft on international routes, since FAA was working with the International Civil Aviation Organization to establish world-wide noise standards. If no agreement was reached by January 1, 1980, however, the agency would take regulatory action to ensure compliance by at least January 1, 1985 (see November 28, 1980).
The rule followed President Ford’s October 21, 1976, announcement that noise standard compliance must be achieved within eight years. It also implemented a major provision of an FAA-DOT noise policy dated November 18, 1976. Other elements of the policy included: a new rule, published November 29, requiring the use of noise abatement flap settings; a decision not to prescribe the two-segment approach procedure, which was considered to involve unacceptable risks; and implementation of a Local Flow Traffic Management system aimed at reducing low-altitude jet flying time, rather than the minimum altitude regulations proposed by the Environmental Protection Agency. In accordance with another element of the policy, FAA during fiscal 1977 issued grants to four airports to participate in a noise control and land use planning demonstration program. (See March 3, 1977, January 19, 1979, and February 18, 1980.)
Primary Sources:
Dated items along the left margin of the FAA History Pages were compiled from the series of FAA’s ‘Historical Chronology’ PDF files. For a list and links to uploaded copies of these PDF files, see aiReform’s ‘FAA History’ main page (link above).
Additional content has been compiled from Wikipedia and other sources; these items are presented along the right margin, and include significant accidents, Whistleblower case actions, various news items, ATC technology developments, links to related material, comments, etc. Further content will be added at a later date.